And how much do you agree or disagree that?
All rights reserved This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Aging is commonly defined as the accumulation of diverse deleterious changes occurring in cells and tissues with advancing age that are responsible for the increased risk of disease and death.
The major theories of aging are all specific of a particular cause of aging, providing useful and important insights for the understanding of age-related physiological changes. However, a global view of them is needed when debating of a process which is still obscure in some of its aspects.
In this context, the search for a single cause of aging has recently been replaced by the view of aging as an extremely complex, multifactorial process. Therefore, the different theories of aging should not be considered as mutually exclusive, but complementary of others in the explanation of some or all the features of the normal aging process.
Nevertheless, several studies on animal models have shown that aging rates and life expectancy can be modified. The present review provides an overlook of the most commonly accepted theories of aging, providing current evidence of those interventions aimed at modifying the aging process.
Aging, anti-aging medicine, caloric restriction, oxidative damage, inflammation, physical exercise Introduction Aging is commonly defined as the accumulation of diverse deleterious changes occurring in cells and tissues with advancing age that are responsible for the increased risk of disease and death Harman The observation that most of the animals living in a natural environment rarely becomes senescent because dying earlier for predation, disease, starvation, or drought Holliday suggests that aging is a phenomenon unique to the human species Hayflick b.
In other words, the advancing knowledge of hygiene and biomedicine has led us to discover the aging process, something that was teleologically not intended for us to be experienced Hayflick b. The immediate consequence of the extended life expectancy is represented by the increasing number of older people in developed countries, an artefact of human civilization Hayflicka.
Life expectancy is defined as the average total number of years that a human expects to live.
Differently, life span is the maximum number of years that a human can live. The lengthening of life expectancy is mainly due to the elimination of most infectious diseases occurring in youth, better hygiene, and the adoption of antibiotics and vaccines.
Before examining the hypothesized biological factors at the basis of the aging process, it is crucial to underline that aging is not a disease. Based on this assumption, Hayflick estimates that a potential cure of the leading causes of death in old age ie, cardiovascular disease, stroke, cancer would only lead to a 15 year-increase in human life expectancy Hayflick b.
Therefore, even in this hypothetical condition, we will not become immortal, but we will only be able to experience how death occurs in the absence of disease. Because aging is negatively associated with the ability to respond to stress and positively related to the homeostatic balance and incidence of pathology, death remains the ultimate consequence of aging Kowald and Kirkwood The notion that aging requires treatment is based on the belief that becoming old is undesirable.
In the last decades, aging has received a negative connotation and become synonymous of deterioration, approaching pathology, and death.
If our society would learn to value old age to the same extent as presently done for youth, then the research aimed at slowing, stopping or reversing the aging process would be as unthinkable as the intervention on the developmental processes of youth.
Instead, what is desirable and demonstrably attainable at all times in life, is the prevention or resolution of pathology Hayflick The major theories of aging eg, the free radical theory Harmanthe immunologic theory Franceschi et al athe inflammation theory Chung et almitochondrial theory Cadenas and Davies are all specific of a particular cause of aging, providing useful and important insights for the understanding of physiological changes occurring with aging.Aspects of dementia diagnoses and the aging process are discussed, with emphasis on the manner in which they affect staff attitudes about geriatric sexuality.
Barriers to the expression of sexuality in the older person: The role of the health professional. There is no reason ageing cannot be a positive process. This is despite widespread negative stereotypes about older people. One common misconception is that the ageing population is a 'burden', with older people often portrayed as dependent recipients of government benefits, heavy users of health care services, and unemployed.
The aim of the research was to examine if and, how the attitudes and perceptions were changing during the aging process.
The research sample included three hundred and eighty-eight elderly people. Objective: Positive self-perceptions of ageing are associated with better health; however, little is known about the potentially underlying mechanisms. The present longitudinal study examines whether the relationship between self-perceptions of ageing and self-rated health is mediated by physical.
THE ABILITY OF HUMAN BEINGS to adapt to change is one of the most positive spects of the aging process. It transcends all areas of human functioning, from living independently, despite overwhelming physical problems, to being able to compete with younger employees in the work force.
Social and Psychological Aspects of Aging Share Since the beginning of the 20th century, life expectancy has increased in the developed world more than in all of recorded history prior to