Chemistry of contraceptives

The Chemistry of Oral Contraceptives Click to enlarge You may have read in the news over the past few days about the passing of Carl Djerassi, the chemist and later, novelist who is best known for his discovery of the first oral contraceptive. This graphic looks at the some of the common chemicals used in oral contraceptives, and how they work. Before the advent of oral contraceptives, it was already well known that sex hormone levels could suppress or prevent ovulation. Inhe discovered the synthetic progestogen, norethindrone, a discovery which paved the way for a number of other synthetic progestogens and estrogens.

Chemistry of contraceptives

Vaginal dryness, or atrophic vaginitis, is an irritation of the vagina caused by a thinning and shrinking of the vaginal tissues and decreased lubrication of the vaginal walls. Symptoms of Vaginal Dryness Vaginal soreness may also have itching or burning sensation Annoying and Chemistry of contraceptives intercourse Frequent urination and urinary urgency Light bleeding after intercourse What Causes Vaginal Dryness?

Decreased estrogen is the most common cause, which is why vaginal dryness most frequently affects postmenopausal women. Removal of the ovaries, chemotherapyhormone therapy and radiation treatments also cause decreases in estrogen and thus can cause vaginal dryness.

In some cases vaginal dryness is also caused by a lack or loss of estrogen following childbirth which can occur if the mother is breastfeeding. Irritation of the vagina caused by tampons, toilet tissue, and contraceptives also can lead to dryness, and in some instances latex condoms can cause an allergic reaction, which can lead to a drying of the vaginal tissue.

Smoking can also cause vaginal dryness. For some women, dryness is experienced as decreased vaginal secretions prior to intercourse. What If You Do Nothing? Repeated vaginal dryness is likely to continue until you pinpoint the cause of the problem and resolve it either with the home remedies suggested here or after having it diagnosed and treated by a physician.

Home Remedies for Vaginal Dryness Slow down and savor the moment. If dryness is caused by rushed lovemaking, slow down and spend more time with foreplay, which can help promote vaginal secretions. If you often have pain during sexual intercourse, even with adequate foreplay, be sure to use a vaginal lubricant prior to sex.

You can also have your partner use a lubricated condom. Apply herbs in the form of salves and oils in the affected area.

Vaginal Moisturizers A number of over-the-counter moisturizing creams and lotions including Astroglide, Lubrin, Replens, and K-Y Jelly are effective in relieving vaginal dryness and accompanying discomfort.


Even if you take hormonal pills, vaginal dryness may still be a problem and these nonhormonal creams are helpful remedies. Some vaginal moisturizers are water-soluble, and at least one Replens contains a new type of vaginal lubricant called polycarbophil, which is bioadhesive and binds to the surface of vaginal cells.

A controlled study compared Replens with polycarbophil and K-Y Jelly water-soluble and found that both worked well, but women in the study tended to like Replens better, even though it left a residue. Another small study found that Replens worked as well to counteract dryness as a cream with estrogen.

Both Astroglide and Replens are mildly acidic, which helps prevent bacterial vaginal infections. Ordinary moisturizing lotions can also be used for vaginal dryness. But avoid petroleum-based products, which can break down condoms, foster infections, and interfere with natural lubricants.

Prevention Avoid douching and using spermicidal foams, creams, or gels. These can adversely affect the vaginal tissue and lead to drying.

Chemistry of contraceptives

Regular sexual activity may help. This improves blood circulation in the vagina, which helps counter dryness. What Your Doctor Will Do Your doctor will perform a pelvic exam, specifically checking the health of the vaginal skin. Hormone levels of the blood may also be taken. Hormone replacement therapy HRT or topical estrogen creams may be recommended.

Estrogen rings such as Estring are a newer option for vaginal dryness.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Mar 25,  · In , the chemist, who died in January at the age of 91, and his team synthesized the compound, which would become a key ingredient in birth control pills.

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Norethindrone was the first progestin, a synthetic version of a natural steroid hormone, progesterone. 'Yeah!' they thundered, fisted right arms thrust in the air" (Djerassi, Carl, "Steroids Made It Possible," American Chemical Society, ).

Since antiquity, women have ingested every manner of substance--herbs and other plants, lead, mercury, copper, gunpowder, and the organs of various animals- . Organic Chemistry - Kindle edition by Leroy G. Wade, Jan W. Simek.

Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Organic Chemistry.

Luis Ernesto Miramontes Cárdenas (March 16, – September 13, ) was a Mexican chemist known as the co-inventor of the progestin norethisterone used in one of the first three oral contraceptives..

Miramontes was born in Tepic, obtained his first Degree in chemical engineering at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). He was a founding researcher . The Chemistry of Oral Contraceptives Click to enlarge You may have read in the news over the past few days about the passing of Carl Djerassi, the chemist (and later, novelist) who is best known for his discovery of the first oral contraceptive.

Luis E. Miramontes - Wikipedia