Though Renaissance writers seemed to be quite on the side of "order," the theme of "disorder" is much in evidence, suggesting that the age may have been experiencing some growing discomfort with traditional hierarchies. Human beings, for example, were pictured as placed between the beasts and the angels. To act against human nature by not allowing reason to rule the emotions--was to descend to the level of the beasts. Yet Renaissance writers at times showed ambivalence towards such a rigidly organized universe.
This is explorations in art history starring me! Well, without the rest of me, how embarrassing, people watching from around the world and I'm stuck waiting on some five-fingered prima donna.
Oh, well that's better. It looks like we'll be talking about the Renaissance Period. During the medieval period, the torch lit by the Greeks, carried on by the Romans, had been rejected, Medieval values instead elevated the spiritual and denounced the flesh.
Then, in the midth century, Petrarch, an Italian poet and scholar of Latin, was able to reconcile Christianity and classical Roman and Greek thought in his writings, and revive interest in what had been dismissed as the pagan past.
This started the period called the Renaissance, or rebirth. The shift of focus from god-centered toward human-centered interest became known as Humanism. Of course, there wouldn't have been much of a Renaissance without a Renaissance man or two, a man with expertise in many fields.
Take Brunelleschi, who was a goldsmith, architect, engineer, sculptor and mathematician. As an artist, he discovered the principles of linear perspective, which gives the illusion of 3-dimensional space, to 2-dimensional art.
Start with the horizon line, add a vanishing point, and then lines that converge to that vanishing point. Now you have a framework for making objects appear farther away.
Of course, Brunelleschi was most famous for his massive dome. No, not that dome. The dome he built for the Florence Cathedral, equal in size to the dome of the Pantheon. Brunelleschi's new method of construction was so different that some Florentines wondered if he was mad! He devised a way to build the dome without scaffolding, and without using flying buttresses, commonly used in Gothic architecture to support the weight of large structures.
Sixteen years later when the dome was completed, it was recognized as a marvel of the era, and Brunelleschi was heralded as a genius.
Donatello also started as a goldsmith. No, no, no, no, Donatello was not a crime-fighting turtle, but Donatello did study the old Roman styles of sculpture and ornamentation. His David is famous as the first free-standing bronze sculpture cast during the Renaissance. It depicts David as the beautiful youth of the Bible, just after decapitating the giant Goliath, and uses classical techniques like contrapposto in its design.
Donatello also developed a new way of sculpting in shallow relief, that applied the rules of linear perspective to create a greater illusion of depth. He would have been hailed as the most accomplished sculptor of the Renaissance, if not for the coming of Michelangelo, who, along with da Vinci and Raphael kicked the art world into high gear for the High Renaissance.
Perhaps no one exemplifies the ideal of the Renaissance man more than Leonardo da Vinci. No, Renaissance man was not a superhero. Really, read your history. Leonardo was a talented painter, sculptor, scientist, architect, and even a military engineer. He painted the most famous portrait in the world, the Mona Lisa.
His boundless curiosity was best exemplified by his notebooks, which were filled with inventions, like a tank, flying machine, and a parachute. InLeonardo went to Milan where he painted his famous mural, The Last Supper, on the wall of a monastery. He chose to portray the emotional moment when Jesus predicts that one of the apostles will betray him, and the betrayer will take bread at the same time he does.
The apostles react in different degrees of surprise and horror, except for Judas, who, distracted by the commotion, reaches for a piece of bread.
Leonardo used perspective lines as a compositional device that leads the eye to Jesus' face, the calm center of the chaos. Though The Last Supper had been painted by others, Leonardo's was the first to depict the apostles as acting, or reacting, like real people. Now we come to Michelangelo.
You think we can do this one straight?Humanism - Later Italian humanism: The achievements of Alberti, Federico, and the Medici up to Lorenzo may be seen as the effective culmination of Italian humanism—the ultimate realization of its motives and principles.
At the same time that these goals were being achieved, however, the movement was beginning to suffer bifurcation and dilution. The major political accomplishment of the Renaissance, perhaps, was the establishment of effective central government, not only in the north but in the south as well.
Northern Europe saw the rise of national monarchies headed by . Introduction: why Italy? On rare occasion one comes across a period of such dynamic cultural change that it is seen as a major turning point in history.
A Bibliographical Introduction to the Italian Humanists. Edited by Craig Kallendorf. Italian humanism, the defining movement of the Renaissance, was a system of learning that produced a cultural renewal in Europe through the study and adoption of ancient Greco-Roman culture.
Introduction. The period of European history referred to as the Renaissance was a time of great social and cultural change in Europe.
Generally speaking, the Renaissance spanned from the 14th to the 16th centuries, spreading across Europe from its birthplace in Italy.
Introduction. Epic and romance are distinct literary genres that poets combine in some of the most effective narrative poems of the early modern period, such as Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso and Spenser’s The Faerie caninariojana.coms refer to these sorts of poems variously as “romance” or “romantic epics” or “epic romances” or “chivalric epics” or “heroic poems,” with each.